September 7, 2016-End John 1, 7 Signs in John-Chart, and Beginning of Chapter 2:1-11

Chapter 1

Points in 43-51

The next day, Jesus leaves for Galilee.  He finds Philip and said to him, “follow me.”  Philip finds Nathanael to tell him the news of the Messiah and Nathanael’s response is about where Jesus is from.  “Nazareth!  Can anything good come from there?”

Sometimes we are too quick to judge where a person comes from, or their place or position in the world.  In doing so we make judgements with dimmed eyes and cloudy hearts looking not at God’s love, intention, calling, and purpose upon their lives.  When we view people this was we often do not see Christ in them, we see them through the eyes of the world and often as a commodity.

Philip just says see for yourself.  When Jesus sees him coming he sees Nathanael’s heart, and it prompts Nathanael to ask, “How do you know me?”  He knows us as only God can, because he is God’s Son and is God.  Jesus responds with where he was at when Philip came to get him.  A place that he was not able to see with his earthly eyes, but know because of who he was.

Upon this encounter, he immediately acknowledges that Jesus is God’s Son, and the king of Israel.  Amazing that once Jesus saw to his heart that it didn’t matter anymore what village or town Jesus came from, it only matter who he was.

Do we worry more about the earthly things that who someone really is?

Jesus tells him, that he believed because of his sharing a personal intimate detail, and Jesus basically says, just wait you ain’t seen nothing yet.

The gospel is for all, but it is personal in nature, in its calling out, and in our response.  The beginning of our walk with Jesus is just that, the beginning.  Greater things are yet to come.

                                THE SEVEN SIGNS IN JOHN
1.  Changing water to wine 2:1-11 Points to Jesus as the Source of all the blessings
of God’s future (see Isa. 25:6-8; Jer. 31:11-12;
Amos 9:13-14)
2.  Healing the official’s son 4:43-54 Points to Jesus as the Giver of life
3.  Healing the invalid at Bethesda 5:1-15 Points to Jesus as the Father’s Coworker
4.  Feeding the five thousand 6:1-15, 25-29 Points to Jesus as the life-giving Bread from
5.  Walking on water 6:16-21 Points to Jesus as the divine I AM
6.  Healing the man born blind 9:1-41 Points to Jesus as the Giver of spiritual sight
7.  Raising Lazarus 11:1-44 Points to Jesus as the Resurrection and the Life
*1-7 Taken from Holman Book of Biblical Charts, Maps, and Reconstructions
8.  The Resurrection of Jesus? 20 Points to Jesus’ resurrection as the new beginning
*8 Theme idea from Love Wins, by Rob Bell

The First Sign-Water to Wine-John 2:1-11

The changing of the water to wine is considered the first of Jesus’ miraculous signs.  We will also over the weeks ahead will take a look at the rest of these as we consider what each of these signs mean in their own context, and what they reveal about Jesus.  In a broader sense what they say about God’s plan for us.

In one way the miracles affirm something of who Christ is.  Jesus was at a wedding feast, a time of celebration for those that were beginning their married life together.  In this time of celebration, the supplies run short and there are not enough provisions.  Jesus’ mother comes to him for assistance.  Who better to know what Jesus was capable of than his own mother?  Mary was chosen to be the mother of Jesus our Lord in a miraculous way.  She knows who he is and what he is capable of.

She has full confidence that he will help, and she tells the servants do whatever he tells you to do.  I am not so certain that his instructions were what they expected.  There were nearby six stone jars, used for ceremonial washing, about 20-30 gallons each.  He asks the servants to fill the jars with water.  They did as Jesus asked, and then Jesus told them to draw some out and take it to the master of the banquet.  I think these men had great faith and/or were very brave.  They just filled the ceremonial washing pots full of water, and now are to take the wash pot water to the master of the party to taste.  I am not so sure that I would have been so courageous.

They did take it and he did taste, but the water had been turned to wine.  The master did not realize where it has come from, even though the servants knew.  It seems like often times in Jesus’ life that these signs are not for the high and mighty.  Perhaps Jesus sending the servants was because he expressed earlier that his time had not come.  The master of the banquet calls the groom aside and says most people bring the good stuff out first and the cheaper stuff after no one cares.  Thinking it was the grooms doing he said, but you have saved the best for last.

There is some irony that this was the first miracle, and because the master knows not who did it, he thinks the best has been saved for last.  However, with Jesus there is no less than the best every time.  He is able always to supply for our needs, he is able to heal our hurts, and He is able to save through His blood.  This same water that was turned to wine also foreshadows Christ using the wine as a symbol of His shed blood for us.

It is said in scripture that this is the first of his miraculous signs.  It is expressed in John 2:11 that in doing so Jesus revealed his glory and his disciples put their faith in him.  When God reveals his glory through Jesus, his disciples put their faith in him.  When we look for the glory of God to be revealed, we will find the faith we so greatly need.  The faith of the few disciples that spread the good news of Jesus and changed our world forever.


John was not just trying to provide information about Jesus but transformation through Jesus.


She perceived the problem through the lens of material need:  more wine.  Jesus reflected on the problem through the through the lens of spiritual priorities:  the need to establish God’s kingdom on earth.


Two levels of the story seem to reveal the practical need to provide for and also the abundance with which Christ would provide through his sacrifice.

August 31, 2016-Notes John 1:20-42

Points in 29-34

The scripture makes not that this event takes place the very next day after he gave an account of Christ and his unworthiness to Christ.  When John sees Jesus he immediately identifies Jesus, and his mission… “the Lamb of God, who take away the sin of the world!”

John stated his purpose was that the Christ might be revealed through his efforts.

What about us today?  Do we correctly know how to identify Christ, who he is, and his purpose?  Do we know our own purpose and how that is connected to God’s will for our lives?

John gave testimony that he himself baptized with water, but Christ would baptize with the Holy Spirit.

What John saw he testified as a witness.  What have you witnessed of Christ in your own lives and how would you share that with others?

Points in 35-42

John pointed people to Christ and then was not bothered when they followed him.  It was never about John himself.  It was always about Jesus.

One of the two that John pointed to Jesus was Andrew, Peter’s brother.  When he found and listened to them, he went and told his brother we have found the Messiah and brought him to Jesus.

When we encounter Christ our response should be to tell our brother/sister or whoever we can find that they might be brought to Jesus.

Jesus looks at Simon and gives him a new name, and through the relationship that followed, he gave him a new life and purpose.

August 24, 2016-Notes John 1:15-28

Points in 15-18

John the Baptist testifies that Christ surpasses him, because he was before him.  This was the main part of emphasizing Jesus’ pre-existence and involvement in creation.

Out of his fullness we receive grace.  The law came through Moses and grace and truth were given through Christ.

We know what we know most completely about God, because God chose to reveal himself through His Son, Jesus Christ.

So the most complete picture of God we have is not found in the law but in the relationship.

Points in 19-28

John the Baptist when he received attention, did not take glory but projected it in the right direction…Christ when he said “I am not the Messiah.”

What do we do when praise is heaped upon us, do we celebrate the praise or give glory to God?

John tells them he baptizes with water only, and speaks of the worthiness of Christ.

Many times in the Bible brave men and women have recounted with boldness the witness and testimony of God, in the process many have suffered for their testimony.  Ironically, the people who usually question them are religious but not necessarily spiritual.

Humor in the Bible-Story 3-Jonah-February 11, 2015

Humor in the Bible-Story 3-Jonah

Jonah is a prophetic book with only five real words of preaching. Jonah is a story more about Jonah and God than it is the prophetic message. The humor found therein is tied a good deal to the original language.

When the story opens up with God commissioning Jonah to go preach to the Assyrian City of Nineveh and God doesn’t exactly disclose at this point what that message was supposed to be. What Jonah, the prophet decides to do is a little weird…he decides to go on the run, from God, huh? He should know better. The surprising thing is generally these messages have been bad news to the people who would receive these messages. Jonah gets the idea that he will try to run away from God. As if running away that God would let him go, or that he actually could escape. He was quite opposed to going. If it was a bad message you would think he might actually be excited to go, but to think there was some place he could go on earth to hide from its creator.

Then Jonah goes down to book a fair on a cargo ship, then goes down in the hull of the ship to go down to sleep, he gets hurled overboard to go down to the bottom of the ocean and then down into the big fish. It is interesting that to go away from God Jonah is also going down.

Jonah seems to suspect that God’s motives may not be the same as his own and has a temper tantrum to protest and then tries to run away. In Hebrew objects and animals are given personal pronouns.   The ship is personified as she. So it reads something like, “the ship thought, I am about to be broken up.” The ship itself and the crew thought they were doomed. The sailors “hurled” stuff overboard just like God had “hurled” a storm at them. Hurling the cargo overboard might save the ship but would mean that they would lose money. What does a “profit” matter if you don’t survive?

All the while Jonah is in the bottom of the boat in a deep sleep. The word for sleep here is the same word in Hebrew as the sleep Adam was under when Eve was formed. The Captain wakes the prophet and suggests prayer. That is kind of funny too. The sailors are sure the gods or a god is upset at one of them, so they draw lots and it falls on Jonah and he admits to it.

Jonah tells them he is Hebrew and fears the Lord who created all, yet his actions seem to say just the opposite. He tells them it is his fault; he can’t outrun God, now the crew was really afraid. So they ask Jonah what they should do and rather than offering to repent to save himself and them, he suggests they “hurl” him overboard. Jonah would rather die than go to Nineveh.

The sea was walking and raging, they pray to Jonah’s God because they were worried about God’s wrath for killing him. Then after trying to row ashore, they “hurl” Jonah overboard and immediately everything stopped. They worshiped God, which Jonah was unwilling to do. Then God “ordained” a big fish to sallow Jonah. The big fish then is described in female personifications temporarily like a mother “carrying” Jonah in its belly. Jonah is cast into the sea as if he thinks he can be cast out of God’s presence, but still never repents.

Now maybe things will get moving. The big fish vomits or “hurls” Jonah onto the dry land. The word of the Lord comes to Jonah a second time. Now Jonah does go to Nineveh.   Nineveh was a large Assyrian city. As soon as Jonah walks into the city he gives a super short sermon, only five words in Hebrew. Generally a sermon has much more detail like the problem, what will happen if the behavior continues, and what we can do (repent) to please God and right ourselves. He was begrudgingly obeying God. Jonah chooses the verb “to turn” like overturn or it could also mean repent. Pretty sure Jonah was thinking ill thoughts and thinking it would be the bad turning. He just says it will be forty days until they turn. Jonah did not supply many details hoping for the worst.

The reaction and response of the people of Nineveh is described in more detailed than the sermon Jonah preached. The people themselves start a grassroots revival not the leaders. The king joins in and for good measure thinks the cows should too. He does all this with the hope that God may spare them. God decides to accept the repentance of their enemies and not to destroy them. Now twice Jonah had evangelized people with the most basic effort and in spite of himself.

Temper! Temper!

Jonah gets mad at God that Nineveh didn’t get “it.” Jonah angrily describes perfectly the grace of God for which he is indeed mad about. God shows patience with the people of Nineveh and Jonah too. Now Jonah stomps his foot on the ground and tells God he wants to die! God responds, “Does it do you any good that it burns you?” The sailors repented, Nineveh repented, even the cows repented, but not the prophet of God. God shows Jonah patience and mercy. God also uses an object lesson to demonstrate how foolish Jonah is actually being. God “ordained” a bush to grow up overnight for shade for Jonah. The next day God then “ordains” a worm to attack the bush and it dies. In the full sun of the day God then “ordains” a blistering wind to blow on Jonah. In another comical way, Jonah is burned up at God and God essentially just lets Jonah get burned up emotionally and physically. This reminds me a bit of the rain cloud that always seems to follow Eeyore.

Jonah again wants to die more than live. “Is being angry about the bush doing you any good”, God asks? Essentially Jonah’s response is something like, “why yes it is and I am so angry I could die!” God response in paraphrase is something like, “really?” You are mad about the plant that you had nothing to do with, and is just a plant? However, you don’t care about the 120,000 people living in Nineveh, what gives? God’s grace for Nineveh is the same grace that Jonah has received but he doesn’t seem to get it.

God in a way is telling Jonah even the cows are better than you are, they repented. Jonah wanted God to be more like him and if we are honest we all do from time to time. Sometimes we are like Jonah trying to avoid God; and think if God is for us then God must be against our enemies (who are not like us). We, like Jonah, want God to be predictable to our expectations. God spares the cows and gives rise to “Chick-fil-a” as those cows would say “Eat More Chicken.” Just kidding.

Humor in the Bible: David-A Complicated Life-February 4, 2015

Story 2: David-A Complicated Life

David, chosen by God, Saul’s harp player, he defeated the giant Goliath, he becomes a war hero, but in doing so makes his king jealous, luckily Saul’s attempts to get rid of David do not work and some have negative effects.

The story of David is one filled with irony. Perception is part of the point with irony, one gets it where another may not. Does this person in the story recognize the truth and reveal it to us, or sometimes the narrator does, occasionally we are not told but left to discern.

It is in this place where we begin. 1 Sam. 13:13-14 Saul displeases God and the spirit of God was no longer with him, and Samuel arrives and God instructs Samuel not to focus on the outward appearance of the sons of Jesse. (1 Sam. 16:6-7)Things aren’t always as they seem. God looks at the heart. We cannot always see or recognize the heart of a person. We should be careful of the difference. The contrast between appearance and reality will follow David most of his life. He is the shepherd boy, the youngest who would later be king. Each of Jesse’s sons or so we thought was presented to Samuel and also rejected by Samuel. So things aren’t going well from the start.

Jesse essential says well my youngest boy is not here to which Samuel basically responds, didn’t I say all the first time 1 Sam. 16:11 & 12. David finally gets there and the description is all about the appearance of the one who we are to be looking at his heart and his character. What does David’s looks have to do with how he would be as a king? David was anointed by Samuel but would need to be recognized and affirmed by the people.

Saul is beginning to crack mentally, God’s spirit is upon David and now an “evil spirit”, from the Lord, is upon Saul. Now on to music to sooth King Saul we have David 1 Samuel 16:23 to help with the evil spirit.

Then Saul puts David in his armor to go out and fight the giant. Upon returning there is a victory parade where the people come out to see Saul but gives more glory to David. David already had the glory due Saul and now he is concerned about his throne. Got to be careful if David is a threat, then Saul could kill him, but if David is God’s choice, he would be in opposition to God. 1 Samuel 18:6-10

David, God’s anointed, plays the harp to comfort Saul, who has an evil spirit from the Lord, and picks up a spear and tries to kill him. Although David was the one being physically threatened, it was Saul who was afraid. 1 Samuel 18:10-12

Saul then looks for more indirect ways to get rid David. David’s great military experience (killing one Philistine) Saul puts David in the army hoping he would die in battle instead it only fosters David’s reputation as a conquering hero and actually fulfills the praise offered him earlier.

The next plan was if you can’t beat them have them join you. He offers his daughter’s hand in marriage to David. As they say, these days half of all marriages may end in divorce, but the other half end in death. David at first refuses on the basis that he has no dowry to pay the king for the propose marriage to Michal. So the king says, no worries, how about 100 Philistine foreskins as the dowry, and David says sure and he and his men set off. Saul knows these men will put up a fight and therefore perhaps David will be killed trying to fulfill this obligation. 1 Samuel 18:25-28. A while later they have killed and collected (Hebrew text says 100, the Greek 200) of the Philistine foreskins, which were given in full number to the king.   Who has to count them and what will he do with them?

Saul sends men directly to kill David as he sleeps but he found out and fled. He sends groups to David and they all fall down in prophetic trances. Saul says well I will do it myself and also ends up in a trance and laying there naked for a night and a day. 1 Samuel 19:18-23

Jonathan is trying to make sure it is safe for David to come back to the king’s court devises a plan for his safety involving arrows. David then directly puts himself in harm’s way by not listening. He finds out it is truly not safe and goes on the run and begins to run with a group of men, becomes more cunning gains Abigail as a wife Nabal, eventually seeking refuge in the camp of the Philistines, Israel’s enemy. The king did not trust David and needed proof.

To satisfy Achish, David made a practice of leading his army on raids against “the Geshurites, the Girzites, and the Amalekites” (1 Sam 27: 8), Israel’s historical enemies, raids in which he would ruthlessly annihilate entire populations of cities and villages. Returning to Ziklag rich in booty, he would report a successful raid on Israel! In effect and unwittingly, Achish had employed David to fight against Israel’s ancient enemies! David skillfully “ played both ends against the middle.” All the while, his reputation in Israel grew as Achish remained clueless: “Achish trusted David, thinking, ‘He has made himself utterly abhorred by his people Israel; therefore he shall be my servant always ’” (1 Sam 27: 12, NRSV). David even survived the last, very dangerous episode in his “fugitive” period that arose from his entanglement with Achish.

Biddle, Mark E. (2013-11-18). A Time to Laugh: Humor in the Bible (Kindle Locations 896-902). Smyth & Helwys Publishing, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

Surviving all this David consolidates power. First, David took Jerusalem and established it as the capital. Second, he made it the center of religious worship, and try to do so by bringing the Ark of the Covenant without asking or receiving instruction from God. Uzzah dies from touching it, so they hold off and ask Obed-Edom if it can stay with him for a while to see if anything bad happens. 2 Samuel 6.

Who would be the next king? Israel had only two kings Saul and David. Samuel had anointed each and now he is dead. Saul and David were not family so who would be the rightful heir to the throne? Does it have anything to do with the Ark? As they are bringing the Ark into the city, to its place David is dancing with all his might in essential very little on. It upset his wife Michal who was watching the slave girls observe her husband. 2 Samuel 6:21-23. Michal got mad at David’s actions and David has a heated exchange with her and then the next thing we hear she dies with having no children. We might presume that his anger meant he no longer had relations with her. Michal, Saul’s daughter, David’s wife if she had a son would be the natural resolution to this story of who is the heir. David made many great military decisions, but was not the best husband or father.

At the end of David’s life he was unable to stay warm. Perhaps poor circulation, so the kings men have a beauty contest to find the prettiest girl in all the land to help keep him warm. It is recorded that he had no relations with her. Here was David’s personal life which also met with the affections of a good number of women in the end was with a beautiful women but not able to be “warm.”

Irony is not limited to David it runs in and out through the bible. One example is Joseph being sold into slavery to save his family from starvation. Another example is Ruth finding Boaz. There is even irony in Jesus’ death being good in the light of his resurrection.

What do you see in David’s life? What can or does it instruct us about our own? David was complicated at times he was meek and naïve, and at others ruthless and calculated. It is perhaps important to remember that in free will people may do things that are not what God desires or perhaps works against what God desires. God, however, works behind the scenes where He is not always visible but continues to work the unseen for His will and purposes.



Humor in the Bible-Background & Isaac-January 28, 2015

Humor in the Bible-Background/Introductory Notes

There are different types of humor in life and in the Bible.

Implications for reading the Bible

  • Some of the humor is not so much understood in the translations but in the word play of the original text
  • Also there is the translating of cultural norms and practices into a non-dominant culture
  • Humor is not so much the words that are used but the way they are used.
  • Compounding the humor in the Bible is grammar and syntax. Neither ancient Hebrew of the Old Testament or the Koine Greek of the New Testament had developed systems of punctuation. Early Greek didn’t have spaces between words and early Hebrew didn’t have vowels.

Humor in the Bible? Sure!

Studies have identified three general ways in which people use humor.

  1. In keeping with its “truth-telling” character, people sometimes use humor to expose an incongruity of a truth which someone may be blind to or might want to deny.
  2. If you don’t get the joke, you don’t see the world the same way as the joke teller.
  3. Finally, humor can be used as a defense to sublimate fear or discomfort, to manage incongruity. So-called “gallows humor” typifies this use. Self-deprecation, so you can control the ability of another to make fun of you.

Why is humor in the Bible, because there is a human factor and human interaction in the Bible. It enriches the human quality of each person. The Bible tells the story of God’s relationship with God’s people. Therefore, rather than being surprised that is contains humor, we should expect it.

Procedure and Plan:

Part of the humor is found in the telling of these stories. So we will tell the stories and fill in background or language issues as need to help supply the best opportunity to see the true humor therein. It is not our attempt to try to make it funny or to make a joke of the Bible quite the opposite. It is our attempt to understand it so well that we are able to see the places of real life in their time and in ours.

Story 1: How Isaac Got a Wife-Genesis 24

In Genesis everything was created by God and was “good” but then things get out of control very quickly. God surprises us when He spares Noah and his family. Then along comes the story of the Patriarch Abraham.

The story of Abraham, the recipient of God’s promise that he would be the ancestor of a great nation that would in turn be the avenue of blessing “for all the families of the earth” (Gen 12: 3), hinges on the problem of the birth of the promised child. At the beginning of the biblical account concerning Abraham, we learn that he (12: 4) and Sarah (cf. 17: 17) are both already quite old (seventy-five and sixty-five, respectively) and, more important to the course of their story, childless (11: 30). If they were to become the ancestors of a great nation, as God promised, the obvious starting point was to become the parents of one son.

Biddle, Mark E. (2013-11-18). A Time to Laugh: Humor in the Bible (Kindle Locations 312-316). Smyth & Helwys Publishing, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

Then we look at Abraham who needs a natural heir from his son Isaac, but Isaac doesn’t seem to be in a hurry. Isaac was 40 and living at home with no prospects and Abraham thinks he is going to be dying soon. If Abraham and Sarah were to form a great nation Isaac would have to have children and grandchildren. No pressure!

“I really don’t want Isaac marrying one of these Canaanite girls from around here. I’d rather he took a wife from back home. So I want you to go back to Haran, where we came from, and I want you to promise me that you’ll bring back a young woman to be Isaac’s wife” (Gen 24: 2-4).

The servant could not promise that he would but that he would try. Poor soul shows up to a busy city in that day and is supposed to somehow come back with the right woman for Isaac to marry. He asks God to show him through a test that the servant sets up. He does his part shortly after Rebekah shows up and shows him kindness.

What was involved in watering camels? A typical camel can drink up to forty gallons of water in one trip to the trough. Rebekah transported the water, drawn by hand from the well and perhaps carried up a short flight of stairs (see v. 16), to the watering troughs in five-gallon clay water jugs that she probably balanced on her head. The servant had ten camels. A gallon of water weighs eight and one-third pounds, a five-gallon jug nearly forty-two pounds. The math is relatively simple, but the result is staggering. In order to water all of the servant’s camels, Rebekah had to make almost one hundred round trips between the well and the watering trough, carrying a total of more than four hundred gallons of water weighing more than 3,330 pounds or more than two and one-half tons!

Biddle, Mark E. (2013-11-18). A Time to Laugh: Humor in the Bible (Kindle Locations 364-367). Smyth & Helwys Publishing, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

Now the servant has to make the proposition about this man’s daughter being the wife of his master’s son. Poor soul indeed, she and her family agree, but then the servant says oh yeah and I would like to leave tomorrow.

Isaac’s wife (soon to be) that he did not ask for and neither of them know each other has arrived. The Isaac goes out of his tent at night to the field to do something (some translators of the text imply bathroom break), and while he is out there Rebekah and the camels show up and upon seeing him doing whatever he was doing in the field and she fell off the camel. The Hebrew text implies that she got off her camel very quickly or fell. Often in Hebrew storytelling actions speak in place of words. Then she has to go and ask the servant who that man is? Probably hoping it not to be Isaac her soon to be husband.

Rebekah was young, beautiful, energetic; Isaac was forty. Was he balding? graying? paunchy? By forty, things start happening to the body; gravity and genes begin to exert their influence. What was Rebekah thinking when, seeing Isaac for the first time, she “fell” off the camel? Was she regretting her hasty decision to return with Abraham’s servant to marry this forty-year-old man? Maybe she replayed the conversation in her mind and realized her mistake.

“And the servant told Isaac all the things that he had done. Then Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her. So Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death” (Gen 24: 67, NRSV).

Biddle, Mark E. (2013-11-18). A Time to Laugh: Humor in the Bible (Kindle Locations 501-503). Smyth & Helwys Publishing, Inc.. Kindle Edition.

The servant tells Isaac “this is your wife that your dad and I got for you, without you. Isaac brings Rebekah into his dead mother’s tent to marry her and have their honeymoon. This may have been a little strange. We never really know about Rebekah’s feelings but the text said that he loved her and Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.

We don’t really know why he was not in a particular hurry to get married. He was likely about 40 years old and had a real close relationship with his mother. I can’t blame him after almost become a sacrifice at the hands of his father. There can be no great nation if Isaac doesn’t have children. What a wonderful funny story of how that all came about. Strangely, he only gets married immediately after Sarah’s death. Isaac is only ever known in relationship to others. Abraham’s son, Jacob’s father, or Rebekah’s husband he is not really a main player.